Inclusive E-learning challenges in Morocco

Moroccan education system in the global context

By Dr. Mustapha Aabi

Morocco - beige concrete buildings

The World Declaration on Education for All (EFA) (1990) and the high-level Unit Summit on Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) emphatically stressed the importance of meeting the educational needs for all children, youths and adults. UNESCO has been mandated to lead this global movement within the international community to reach EFA. A concerted determination to promote education “became almost synonymous with ensuring that every child is in school” noted the UNESCO in its EFA global monitoring report (2015: 41). This philosophy is reflected in Moroccan education policies and regulations which started with the 1963 royal decree making basic education from the age of 6 to 15 years old compulsory. Education budgets have since increased significantly. More recently, the 3-year National Education Emergency Support Program, which started in 2009 but terminated earlier in 2011, spend nearly 5 billion US dollars over two years.  In a way, these concerted efforts in terms of spending, policy and regulations seem to have yielded the desired results in line with the EFA goal as primary school enrolment reached 99.5% in 2013 according to UNICEF 2014 report. However, according to the same UNICEF report, only 88% and 61% were enrolled for middle and secondary education respectively. In rural areas, the enrolment numbers are much lower, 69.5% in primary, 30.6% in secondary for boys and less than 21.9% for girls, which is very alarming considering that the fact that the rural population represents nearly 40% of the total population in Morocco according World Bank estimate of 2016. 

International efforts undeniably led to a significant increase in school enrolment – 90.7% of primary age students worldwide were enrolled in school – and gender parity in primary enrolments rates – GPI of 0.96 has been achieved (World Bank 2012). This drive towards universal access to primary education, which was more applicable to the poorest countries rather than to more developed nations, albeit successful, has not been without setbacks in many parts of the world such as Morocco. International student achievement studies revealed low academic achievement of Moroccan students. Learning achievement scores in the TMSS 2015 were 377 and 384 out of 1000 for Grate 4 and Grade 8 respectively, ranking 47 out the 49 countries that participated in the assessment. Seventy four percent of Moroccan students did not reach even the lowest of four benchmark levels, while none at all reached the highest benchmark level in the TIMSS 2011 (World Bank 2013). Morocco also underachieved in the PIRLS 2016 International Results in Reading, scoring 358 out of 1000 for Grade 4, and ranking 48 out 50 participating countries. 

Meanwhile, the international community came to realize that the scorecard of the EFA for developing countries such as Morocco has not been as expected and that focus on universal primary enrolment meant less attention on the effectiveness on teaching itself. Admittedly, education quality in Morocco remains low characterized by the poor learning outcomes and a weak integration of graduates in the labor market, concedes the World Bank (11 September, 2013). To this effect, the most recent World Bank initiative to improve global education has shifted focus from “access and kids in seats, to one where we’re now really going to focus on outcomes and results” says the World Bank’s president, Jim Yong Kim (The Guardian, Monday 18 May 2015 14.56 BST). These outcomes are measured by international student assessments such as TIMSS, PIRLS, PISA and the World Bank SABER and ECD toolkits on the basis of pre-determined educational indicators and standards. 

Inclusive education in Morocco: Is it a path for a universally designed education?

Inclusive education means not only that all children go to school, but more importantly, it is an educational provision that adapts to respond to natural or socio-culturally constructed differences between students. According to UNESCO (2005), inclusive education is “a process of addressing and responding to the diversity of needs of all learners through increasing participation in learning, cultures and communities, and reducing exclusion from education and from within education.”

Inclusive education in Morocco, however, is particularly characterized by a lack of understanding of the conceptual scope of inclusion when applied to the field of education. It has been inadvertently associated with disability. To this effect, the country has passed several national legislations and ratified international agreements which guarantee the rights of special needs. As in many countries, the implementation of inclusive education in Morocco has gone through a series of conceptual changes. It started with special needs schools totally isolated education settings, then special needs classrooms within mainstream schools referred to as CLIS with the aim of providing special needs children with basic education that will then enable them to enter the regular school path, and more recently inclusive education referred to as CEI ending the isolationist approach to special education and considering the whole school an inclusive institution. This is a significant leap in policy given the unfavorable social and economic factors. In practice, the policy is far from reaching its intended goals due to a lack of clear pedagogical framework. Special needs children have been included in mainstream classrooms but have not been provided with the opportunities to succeed due to learning environments which lack the flexibility in the ways diverse learners can learn and be taught (National evaluation commission for education, training and scientific research, 2019). 

Based on ample evidence from recent research worldwide (e.g. Bracken and Novak 2019), Universal Design for Learning (UDL), as an innovatively useful approach for inclusive education, can clearly inform education policies and support the development of a curriculum reference framework for inclusive education in Morocco capable of providing a favorable environment supporting diverse learning opportunities in schools as well as in HE settings for marginalized students in terms of sex, geography, and ability.

Online Learning: Is It the Solution?

For several years now, Moroccan universities have been embracing the digital age with a distinctive rise of online platforms and online training despite the fact that until today online programs, including online degrees from overseas universities, are not recognized in Morocco. Unsurprisingly, efforts to digitize education in Morocco are mostly sporadic attempts from individual lecturers to reach out to their students and keep them engaged.

With the recent pandemic shutdown of schools and universities, online education has received an incredibly increasing attention. Given the current circumstances, it has been adopted by the ministry of education as the only possible alternative to classroom learning, and hailed by the media and various stakeholders including policy makers as the way-forward. Now, setting up the course for the development and recognition of online programs in Morocco is just a matter of ‘when not if’. Despite the understandably hastened transition to online education as a result of the pandemic, it did indeed offer a way-out, the only way-out. Teachers and students are now wondering if these significant changes brought about by the pandemic are here to stay and to what degree. Logically, answering this question should depend on examining to what 

extent it served and will serve its purpose in terms of learning outcomes. There is ample evidence from previous research, prior to the pandemic, showing the advantages of online education which can potentially help in providing a more favorable environment for effective teaching and learning in Morocco. 

Over-crowdedness: The Standing Committee for the Governance of National Education and Training highlighted the necessity to overcome the issue of overcrowded classrooms (The High Council for Education, Training and Scientific Research 24/10/2017). Online education is a viable option to eliminate the problem of over-crowdedness and provide more favorable learning opportunities (El-Khouly, 2018:75). Allowing students to attend their courses online would mean fewer students in Moroccan packed schools and universities. 

Cost: Morocco has made strong commitments to education which led to increasing education expenditures. The index of the total of the national education budget has been since 2009 at an approximately 5% average rate. (EFA National Report: Morocco, 2014). The escalating number of students increasingly represents encumbering challenges to maintain education quality and is also subsequently translated into insufficient investment in resources, teacher development and training, and learner accessibility (World Bank Report, May 30, 2019). As online education cost is far less than traditional on-campus education (Colbeck & Southworth, 2014:213) it can provide for Morocco a good opportunity to manage the available financial recourses to expand accessibility and favorable learning environments. A comparative simulation of cost in Morocco found that a face-to-face on-campus would cost three times more than a distant online course (Revue de l’etudiant marocain, 2014:4).

Learner Engagement: Lack of positive engagement has a severe impact on student retention. Drop-out rates are significantly high. Only 53% of students enrolled in middle school continue on to high school and less than 15% of first grade students are likely to graduate from high school (USAID, May 07, 2019). According to the ministry of education, only 37% of the Moroccan population aged between 18 and 22 enroll in universities, 16.5% of whom drop out in their first year and 8.1 percent drop out in the third (Ben Saga, Morocco World News, Nov 7, 2018). A survey conducted by the Observatoire National de Développement Humain in 2012 found that the major reason (31.9%) mentioned by the population surveyed for school dropouts is “child does not like the school” (World Bank Report, May 30, 2019). The flexibility of online learning offers students the freedom to choose their appropriate learning styles, at their own pace, and in the right time that does not clash with other life responsibilities. Such learning conditions, usually exclusive to online education, are likely to increase student engagement and motivation (Caravias. 2018:978).

Accessibility: According to the survey carried out by the Observatoire National de Développement Humain in 2012, the second major reason (13.6%) cited by the population surveyed for school dropouts is “the household is far from school” (World Bank Report, May 30, 2019). Geographical distance is not the only challenge to education accessibility in Morocco. Other barriers arise as a result of physical, sensory and cognitive disabilities. According to a USAID report (2016), the education system in Morocco has limited ability to provide education for all children with disability and that their vast majority do not receive any form of education. The current state of education accessibility in Morocco can benefit greatly from the implementation of online learning. Factors related to student disabilities, location for life circumstances no longer limit access to education due to e-learning (Renes, 2015).

While online education offers many possibilities for increasing accessibility, it also presents unique challenges. One of the major challenges in the context of Morocco is digital readiness of teachers and learners, the establishment and the technology provider. A large part of the teacher and student population require varying degrees of IT proficiency enhancement. Educational establishments, in their majority, lack the proper infrastructure in terms of equipment, online curricula and other online pedagogical materials. Relatively low bandwidth and weak internet can affect the quality of access, presentation and participation in online courses.

Universally designed online education: A way forward

Transitioning to a universally designed online environment implies anticipating the diverse needs of students that are likely to enroll in the course, then proceeding with its design accordingly. In this case, UDL represents the guiding framework for the design of learning environments that are accessible and effective for each learner to succeed based on scientific insights into how students learn, namely, engagement, representation, and action and expression.

Engagement: When considering this principle, we look into how teachers provide a variety of ways to motivate and engage students. The flexible nature of online courses allows for the provision of considerable options for the types of resources and diverse engaging learning opportunities to maintain focus and motivation of students.

Representation: When considering representation, we look into how teachers provide a variety of ways for students to access and interact with their course content. Unlike the limiting nature of a traditional classroom especially in terms of time constraints, an online course allows for unlimited possibilities to present key concepts in multiple ways (lectures, worksheets, videos and experiments), formats (visual, verbal and written), and reading/complexity levels (simple/easy to complex/challenging).

Action and expression: When considering action and expression, we look into how teachers provide a variety of ways for students to demonstrate their learning. Online environments empower each student by facilitating the option for her/him to choose the type of assignment and the format of submission (written, audio, video and multimedia) to demonstrate reaching the intended learning goals.

The face of higher education has changing drastically with the recent pandemic. Online learning has become a sine qua non for the design or creation of university programs. While this paradigm shift brings with it several challenges, it offers greater opportunities for better accessibility and diversity. It positions online education as a more effective force to make education in Morocco more inclusive.


Ben Saga, A. 2018. Half of Moroccan University Students Drop out Before Graduation. Half of Moroccan University Students Drop out Before Graduation

Bracken, S. and Novak, K. (eds.) 2019. Transforming higher education through Universal Design for Learning. London & New York: Routledge.

Caravias, V. 2018. “Teacher Conceptions and Approaches to Blended Learning Environments”. In Online Course Management: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications. edited by Management Association, Information Resources.

Colbeck, C.L. and Southworth, M. 2014. “Which Way Toward Quality and Survival?” In S. Freeman, L. S. Hagedorn, L.F. Goodchild and D.A. Wright (eds.) Advancing Higher Education as a Field of Study. Virginia: Stylus.

CSERRS. 2019. Évaluation du modèle d’éducation des enfants en situation de handicap au maroc: vers une éducation inclusive.

EFA National Report: Morocco, 2014.

El-Khouly, M.M. “Egypt” 2018. In A.S. Weber and S. Hamlaoui (eds). E-learning in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Region. Cham, Switzerland: Springer.

Renes, S.L. 2015. Increasing Access to Higher Education Through E-Learning, E-Learning – Instructional Design, Organizational Strategy and Management. Boyka Gradinarova, IntechOpen,

Revue de l’etudiant marocain – Spécial rentrée – Édition 2013 / 2014 – N° 108.

USAID. 2019. Morocco: Education.

USAID. 2016. Situation and Needs Assessment for Students Who are Blind/Low Vision or Deaf/Hard of Hearing in Morocco.

UNESCO. 2015. Education for All 2000-2015: Achievements and challenges: EFA Global Monitoring Report.

World Bank Report No: PAD3157, May 30, 2019.

UNESCO, 2005. Guidelines for inclusion.

World Bank. 2013. Maintaining Momentum on Education Reform in Morocco.

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Simple but Powerful Learning Strategies for Information Overload

Hicham Beddari

Simple but Powerful Learning Strategies for Information Overload

Studying at the university is meant to be an eye-opening and exciting experience. In order to reach this main goal, major learning obstacles must be overcome. As university students, we are overwhelmed by loads of information that we keep receiving, almost, on daily basis. Remembering and using them properly and efficiently, when needed, is of great importance to ensure success without much anxiety.
By using learning strategies that work best for you, the huge amount of information begins to ease, and the learning anxiety is bound to lower down. Memory strategies, structured reviewing, guessing strategies, and affective strategies, to name a few, would help serve the desired purpose.

Linking information in a chain. One way of doing this is to use acronyms (abbreviations). Take the first letter of every word in a sentence, or a set of particular information or an important list of words, and use them as a cue to remember what interests you. For instance, FANBOYS can be used to remember the coordinating conjunctions (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so) in a grammar course. You can invent your own acronyms for similar purposes.
Creating a story. If you want to remember unrelated vocabulary items you have just been presented to, try to create a little story where you can use all those words, or place them into other contexts, such as funny sentences or conversations. By so doing, they will be much easier to memorize.
Optimizing structured reviewing. Looking at new information once is not a good idea. It must be reviewed intelligently. Right after you have learned something new, you can start with a 10 minutes review, then 20 minutes later, an hour or two later, a day later, two days later, a week later. In this way, you become familiar with the presented information, and it becomes totally natural and automatic.

Strengthening guessing strategies. For instance, in order to better understand a foreign language reading passage with lots of unknown words, you can rely on the immediate context (the sentence in which it appears, and words which come before and after) to figure out the meaning of particular words instead of spending a great deal of time looking them up in the dictionary. You can also examine the wider context of the word (other sentences in the paragraph), and the structure of the word (is it a prefix, suffix, or root?).
Enhancing affective strategies. In order to lower down your anxiety while listening, reading or writing new information, keep your spirit up, and keep encouraging yourself. The first step is never to engage in negative self-talk. Instead, say positive statements about yourself privately. Here are some examples: Everybody makes mistakes, I can learn from mine/ I can tell I am starting to understand this / I enjoy what I am reading about this. I get the general meaning without knowing every word. Another way to keep stress under control and move forward is by discussing your feelings about learning with your teacher or ‘better’ friend, one who is likely to boost your confidence or cheer you up in what you are doing.

Visualizing information. By using the ‘Loci method’, you think of familiar set of spatial environments, such as rooms in your house, and then imagine each item on the list to be remembered in one specific location. For example, if you want to memorize an important speech, script, or a book/chapter summary, you may mentally store the introduction of your speech from the front door of your house, symbolizing the beginning of your speech, go through the hall, turn into the living room, proceed through the dining room and into the kitchen, and so on. Each piece of furniture could also be used as a guiding location. Place each element of your speech, as an example, that you want to remember at one of the locations. When you want to remember the elements, simply visualize your house and go through it room by room in your mind. Each element that you associated with a specific location in your house should present itself as you mentally make your way through your home.

Visualizing information by using the ‘Pegword’ method. This time, use numbers instead of places when you want to remember a list of new information. First, memorize the following rhyming pegwords : “One is a bun, two is a shoe, three is a tree, four is a door, five is a hive, six is sticks, seven is heaven, eight is a gate, nine is a line, and ten is a hen.” You can then associate the visual images of the objects bun, shoe, tree, door, and so on with the words or information that you wish to memorize. When reciting the rhyme, you can remember the images of the pegwords, along with the information associated with them.
If you are heading for burnout, do not hesitate to apply these learning strategies and remember to share yours.

La conception universelle de l’apprentissage (CUA) est-elle un besoin local ou un « concept étranger » ?

Par: Rabiaa Lahrach

La conception universelle de l’apprentissage (CUA) est-elle un besoin local ou un « concept étranger »

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Il s’est avéré, dans de nombreux pays de l’hémisphère sud, que les programmes et cours ne sont pas toujours accessibles à l’ensemble des apprenants, ne répondent pas suffisamment à leurs besoins et attentes et ne s’adaptent pas nécessairement à leurs différences et styles d’apprentissage. Plusieurs études et rapports internationaux (banque mondiale, 2018 ; UNESCO, 2017) ont révélé que la rigidité des curricula, la complexité des situations d’apprentissage, l’uniformité des tâches et la non attractivité des sujets à étudier, seraient à l’origine de plusieurs problèmes dont souffrent ces pays : taux d’abandon et de redoublement très inquiétants, des résultats peu satisfaisants et des formes d’exclusion enregistrées auprès des filles et des garçons en situation d’handicap.
Comment la conception universelle de l’apprentissage (CUA) pourrait être utile aux pays du sud ?

Les avantages qu’apporte l’emploi systématique de la conception universelle de l’apprentissage en éducation sont de plus en plus reconnus. Les pays qui ont adopté la CUA ont enregistré une nette amélioration dans les résultats de ses apprenants et une diminution des inégalités d’accès à l’apprentissage. C’est à travers la diversification des contenus éducatifs, des objectifs pédagogiques, des méthodes, et des évaluations (CAST, 2011), que la CUA offre des opportunités à tous, permet la prise en charge des groupes de niveaux de connaissance, d’habileté variés et des styles d’apprentissage différents, y compris ceux qui ont des handicaps physiques, des déficiences sensorielles ou des troubles de communication et d’apprentissage. En s’alignant aux principes et stratégies de la CUA, les pays de l’hémisphère sud, donneront à chaque apprenant la possibilité de trouver l’accès aux compétences requises pour la réussite et l’amélioration de ses résultats.
Que propose La conception universelle de l’apprentissage (CUA) pour améliorer les résultats d’apprentissage dans ces pays ?
Les principes et lignes directrices de la conception universelle de l’apprentissage proposent un ensemble de stratégies visant à donner des alternatives et de flexibilité́ pour une meilleure accessibilité́ pour tous. Surmonter les obstacles. Trouver des solutions et offrir plus de simplicité nécessaire à l’optimisation des possibilités d’apprentissage. Et susciter l’intérêt, l’engagement de tout un chacun pour devenir acteur de sa réussite.

Flexibilité́ : La planification des activités doit être suffisamment flexible pour fournir de véritables occasions d’apprentissage à tous. Cette flexibilité se concrétise en utilisant une variété de stratégies d’enseignement et de matériel pédagogique pertinents, participatifs et correspondant à chaque besoin en matière d’apprentissage.
Simplicité : Pour pouvoir éviter toute complication inutile et réduire au minimum les sources de distraction, les objectifs d’apprentissage doivent être partagés, les attentes sont cohérentes et réalisables ainsi que les instructions doit être claires et accessibles.
Intérêt : la motivation est une condition préalable à tout apprentissage fructueux. Les tâches proposées doivent donner envie et solliciter l’intérêt des apprenants. En proposant des moyens pour une participation active et fournissant des situations variées pour soutenir les efforts et favoriser la persévérance.

La CUA serait-elle un concept étranger au contexte des pays du sud, ou difficile à appliquer et mettre en œuvre ?
Ainsi présentée, la CUA ne s’éloigne guère des autres approches pédagogiques existantes dans ces pays, elle se situe à « l’intersection des initiatives » pédagogiques (Tremblay, 2015). Avec les actions et les stratégies préconisées, elle ne peut devenir ni une charge supplémentaire ni un investissement de plus, mais bien un canevas permettant de repenser l’acte d’enseigner et d’apprendre, d’économiser l’énergie et l’effort et de susciter la réussite de plus d’élèves et étudiants.

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My Remote Learning Experience during COVID-19 Lockdown

Mohsine Wahib

My Remote Learning Experience during COVID-19 Lockdown - image

Once declared as a pandemic, the Coronavirus has significantly modified almost all of our daily activities. Working is being done online, entertaining is being done online, and of course, schooling can’t be performed in any way but online. Schools are closed! 

Education could be among the most vital sectors that have been hit hard by the COVID-19 outbreak. As a Moroccan university student, I have found myself lost since the early days of this COVID-19 lockdown, just like every other student on earth who is experiencing this rapid transition to online learning. The way learning used to look like has completely changed now. The remote learning seems to me like starting to be a student for the first time in my life. It is a learning environment where I felt the need to learn how to study over again, how to engage myself in the learning process again, and how to rearrange my own wide range of learning needs. 

Looking at my journey of remote learning makes me sadly realize how it is not very pleasing to me. The learning space now is no longer that classroom where physical or cognitive engagement could be easily fostered through my interaction with our instructors and classmates. Instead, it has now become our individual learning space where barriers and challenges are severely increased to reach such engagement. It is now the virtual classroom where content accessibilty, self-regulation, self-directedness and motivation are highly required. Such skills significantly hinge on how the learning materials are presented and how we are supposed to react to the content as well as how interested in the learning content we are. 

I have been recently introduced to UDL, and given the luxury of time that confinement has provided, I have immersed myself in many readings about the UDL framework. I think I can safely say that my online learning experience could have been positively changed if it had been designed under the principles of the Universal Design for Learning UDL. With UDL, the online space can be learning environments where information and knowledge are presented, demonstrated and approached in more flexible ways; and where all those barriers and challenges of learning are appropriately reduced to include all learners with equitable opportunities. 

Learning online with UDL could have made my learning experience more appealing. I believe that my remote learning could have been more effective if I was provided with diverse representations of our courses content. This way, I would have different choices to optimize my learning according to my learning style and needs. Different sources and a variety of the representation of the content would provide equitable opportunities to all of us.   My remote learning experience could have been more efficient if it provided us with flexible forms and multiple opportunities in how to react with the content. If multiple means of actions were offered, I would be able to approach different tasks of the content in some varied appropriate manners. I think I could have done better in my learning experience if I had the choice in my assignments, the needed skills to become purposeful and the ability to remain motivated.  My remote learning experience could have been appealing if different means of engagement were provided. It could have been less stressful if different options for triggering motivation, interest, relevance, choice, collaboration were integrated.  

I like to think that UDL has a key role to play in a more engaging and more effective education!

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Pourquoi je souhaite que mon Université ait la CUA ?


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Si chaque étudiant est différent, comment peut-on offrir un environnement qui permet à tous de s’épanouir ? En tant qu’étudiante universitaire, je rejoins la voix des étudiants du monde pour dire qu’il est plus juste, plus équitable et surtout plus efficace que nos programmes d’études soient universellement conçus pour répondre à nos divers besoins.

Pour corroborer cet avis, je partage avec vous le témoignage d’un étudiant âgé de 19 ans, qui a réussi à obtenir son bac malgré sa dyslexie, mais qui a rencontré, aux études supérieures, plusieurs difficultés relatives à la méthode de présentation des cours, aux conditions logistiques, etc. Oussama déclare : « Je suis un étudiant universitaire en première année filière de droit en français. J’avais besoin de multiplier mes efforts pour pouvoir réussir et arriver à ce point-là car j’ai souffert dès mon enfance d’une dyslexie, les études n’étaient pas une entreprise aisée pour moi. Cette année, tout est changé. L’étude à la faculté est différente des années d’études passées. Avant je trouvais quand même un accompagnateur qui est le professeur, je trouve aussi plusieurs ressources numériques différentes qui m’aident à comprendre mes leçons. Cette année je me trouve perdu… Je n’arrive pas à me concentrer et comprendre le cours que le professeur présente oralement sans varier les méthodes et les ressources. Si l’on adoptait les principes de l’approche CUA, j’aurais l’occasion de pouvoir étudier sans difficulté. Puisque les cours seront présentés et adaptés à mon cas. » 

Les besoins de Oussama, relevés dans ce témoignage, auraient pu être largement satisfaits par la mise en pratique de la CUA, repose sur trois piliers fondamentaux, à savoir:

1. Le quoi ? 

Il renvoie aux représentations des apprentissages. En effet, quand mon université adoptera cette approche, elle va nous proposer des ressources en différents formats de taille, de caractère, avec des descriptions textuelles ou orales pour toutes les images, graphiques, les vidéos. Les cours seront sous-titrés pour des apprenants malentendants. Les classes de cours seront équipées d’un système de son et d’un microphone.

Avec la CUA, mon université va nous fournir du matériel et des ressources variées sollicitant différentes préférences d’apprentissage: ex. livres, articles, blogues, sites web, présentations multimédias, documentaires, observations, expérimentations, manipulations, etc.

2. Le comment ? 

En effet, si mon université adopte la CUA, elle permettra aux étudiants d’exprimer leurs apprentissages de diverses manières.

Chaque étudiant peut choisir la méthode qui lui convient pour produire : travailler sur des productions écrites, utiliser des enregistrements audio, développer une œuvre d’art, monter une capsule vidéo, créer un blog, etc.

L’inclusion de journaux de bord et/ou de portfolios pourrait aussi faciliter la récapitulation et l’autoréflexion aux étudiants en cours de session.

3. Le pourquoi ?

Une université qui intègre les principes de la CUA dans ses enseignements, est une université qui motive et engage le jeune adulte dans son cheminement, et qui favorise les habiletés et les stratégies liées à sa réaction personnelle. Elle lui permet de s’auto-évaluer et de s’autoréguler tout en optimisant sa motivation et sa rétroaction. 

La voix de Oussama est appuyée par celle de Mme Loubna LEKREBSSI, enseignante et présidente de l’association NAMAE pour la créativité et le développement (ANCD), qui déclare : « En tant que femme associative ayant une expérience dans la formation et le soutien, présentiels et à distance, des étudiants. Et pour donner suite à ma relation avec ces étudiants de l’université qui me parlent toujours de l’origine de leurs lacunes. Vraiment la plupart d’eux n’arrive pas à assimiler et continuer leurs études universitaires. Je pourrais en déduire qu’ils souffrent de la méthode expositive et classique par laquelle on enseigne dans les facultés. La relation professeur-étudiants n’est qu’une relation de (question- réponse). Ont-ils une idée sur les profils de leurs étudiants ? Leurs capacités et leurs compétences ? de leurs besoins spécifiques Et si l’on parle des cas qui avaient souffert dès leur enfance des troubles de communication ou d’apprentissage, ou ceux qui avaient des déficiences sensorielles (ou autres…). Est-ce que leurs problèmes sont résolus car ils ont réussi et sont maintenant des étudiants universitaires ? Est ce qu’ils peuvent être considérés comme des étudiants normaux ? Ces cas spécifiques, ont fait un grand effort pour arriver à ce niveau et être étudiants universitaires. Ils ont besoin d’un accompagnement et une adaptation de cours à leurs niveaux et à leurs spécificités. Une diversité de méthodes, de techniques, de stratégies d’apprentissage, une souplesse de cours adaptés à tous est la solution. » 

Somme toute, La CUA est la solution. C’est l’approche qui nous sera utile pour atteindre notre objectif essentiel qu’est un bon citoyen, capable à s’adapter à toute situation nouvelle, à tout changement, à tous les niveaux de développement pour servir son pays.

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L’apprentissage à l’époque de la COVID-19

             Par : Mohamed BOUFOUS

L’apprentissage à l’époque de la COVID-19

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Malgré le caractère imprévu de cette crise sanitaire, et la suspension des cours présentiels suite à la fermeture des établissements scolaires et universitaires, les élèves et les étudiants continuent de suivre leurs apprentissages grâce aux cours dispensés à distance par leurs professeurs. Les immenses options que l’apprentissage à distance offre en termes de variété de ressources, de modes d’accessibilité et de moyens de présentation, nous poussent à   réfléchir aux principes de la Conception Universelle de l’Apprentissage (CUA) qui s’alignent parfaitement avec de telles possibilités.

Tu es un étudiant et tu souhaites profiter des principes de la CUA dans ton apprentissage?  L’apprentissage à distance offre des conditions qui s’harmonisent très bien avec la CUA. Mise sur les pratiques efficaces et efficientes, et n’oublie pas que la CUA vise la réussite de vous tous!

Détermine  ton style d’apprentissage !

Ton profile d’étudiant est unique. Certes, tu apprends de plusieurs façons, mais tu as tendance à privilégier un mode et un style d’apprentissage entre autres. Or, tu peux se servir  de deux, trois ou même quatre styles. 

Si tu réussis à définir clairement ton style d’apprentissage (avec tes points forts et tes points faibles), il y aura de fortes probabilités que tu minimises tes efforts, que tu optimises tes activités d’apprentissage et que tu les organises de la façon qui te convient le mieux. 

Bref, quel est ton style d’apprentissage préférentiel ?

Sois autonome et apprends à apprendre !

La technologie met à ta disposition une multitude d’outils qui favorisent l’apprentissage autonome. Tu disposes donc de tout ce dont tu as besoin pour effectuer un travail individuel selon ton propre rythme. Tu es l’auteur et l’acteur de ton apprentissage.  Change d’attitude et prends en charge ton apprentissage ! Définis tes objectifs, tes contenus d’apprentissage, ta méthodologie, tes stratégies ! Gère ton temps ! Évalue tes acquis !

Or, prendre en charge ton apprentissage ne veut pas dire apprendre sans professeur. C’est du développement de tes capacités méta-réflexives qu’il s’agit.

 Il faut dire par ailleurs que devenir autonome, nécessite un apprentissage. Apprends à apprendre !

Organise-toi et crée des plans d’action !

Sans organisation personnelle rigoureuse, tu vas vite être submergé par les préoccupations de ta vie personnelle et les cours à suivre et à assimiler. Pour s’en sortir, chaque minute doit être utilisée sciemment et efficacement. Se doter d’un planning et d’une méthode de travail est très indispensable, si tu ne veux pas être désorienté.

Organiser ton temps et ton travail est le secret pour apprendre avec efficacité et sans stress. 

Entretiens ta motivation !

Il se peut que tu éprouves une tentation de céder au découragement. Avoir le sentiment de relâchement, après des efforts déployés, est tout à fait normal. Mais ne perds pas de vue le sens de tes efforts, voire ton projet : avoir un diplôme universitaire, intégrer le marché d’emploi, acquérir une expérience professionnelle, etc. Ceci t’aidera sûrement à surmonter ce sentiment passager. Et surtout, n’oublie pas que la motivation est contagieuse : Échange avec tes amis qui résistent mieux ! Et entretiens ta motivation tout au long de ton apprentissage !

Engage-toi dans ton apprentissage !  

C’est la clé de voûte de ta réussite. Tu dois honorer la confiance que ton professeur place en toi. Montre ton intérêt pour ses cours, ses orientations, les devoirs à lui remettre, etc. Plus ton engagement est grand, plus ton apprentissage augmente. Sois maximalement actif et réactif : Pose des questions ! Informe-toi auprès de ton professeur et tes amis sur l’utilité de votre apprentissage ! N’hésite pas à être force de proposition ! Tes propositions pourraient améliorer le cours. Ce sont des actions, entre autres, qui montrent ton implication et ton enthousiasme. 

Bref, ne t’isole pas !        

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I’m not disabled, I’m DIFFERENT

by Yousra El Amiri

Are we limited because of what we do not have, or can we be limitless because of what we have? Too often do people limit themselves because they fear criticism. They fear being labeled as ‘disabled’. 

I’m not disabled, I’m DIFFERENT

Looking back at my own education, I remember realizing that I wasn’t as normal as the other kids in my classroom. I remember feeling absolutely appalled by the fact that my peers were quick-witted while I was slow on the uptake. For years, I did my best to hide how much I struggled. Tasks that most students wouldn’t even bat an eyelash at used to make me anxious and panicky. I would try to hide in the back of the class, hoping desperately that the teacher wouldn’t call on me because I knew I would look blankly at him if he asked me to retell the story.  What the teacher said or wrote on the board made no sense to me. It was as if the words were faceless, nothing identifiable. I was always told that I was an underachiever, unable to achieve academically. But I was also told to never let anyone define who I am and sculpt me. 

Understanding myself as a learner

Very soon I became aware of my problem. My parents took me to a child psychiatrist to find out why I was struggling at school. Tests showed that I was of ‘average’ intelligence, scoring ‘high’ on non-verbal tasks, but ‘low’ on auditory tasks, and that I was a visual learner. Once I fully understood myself, I became aware of my strengths, weaknesses, needs, interests and preferences. I EVOLVED. 

A DIFFERENT way of thinking, not a disability, and not a disadvantage

We need to impress this definition into our minds. We are not dumb and we’re in any less of a person because of our struggles. Many call us disabled. Disability means simply the inability to do something. We do have the ability to read, write, and learn. We just do it DIFFERENTLY. People care how the cookies taste, not how long it took us to make them.

Embrace that difference

Like most of you, I have been teased, labeled, scrutinized, excluded and misunderstood, but I have come to a full acceptance and understanding of Who I Am through accepting my differences. We’re all different in our own ways. Don’t be ashamed to reflect on your difference. You’re exactly who you were meant to be. Just be you. Be you loudly. Be you fiercely. Be you beautifully. And always remember that we need to first be limited in order to become limitless. 

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